The Light of the World (-4 BC-30 AD):
The most important events in this period of time are the mystery of Incarnation, Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ, the Son of the Living God + Pentecost.
-4 BC: Jesus Christ was born in Bethlehem.
30 AD: Jesus Christ suffered, died, and was buried. On the third day he rose again. He ascended into
Antioch (30 AD-350 AD):
The most important events that happened in this period of time were the persecution of the Early Church, the spread of Christianity in the cities of the Roman Empire, especially Antioch, the martyrdom of the Apostles, and the victory of the Church over the Roman Empire with Constantine the Emperor.
37 AD: The martyrdom of St. Stephen.
44 AD: The martyrdom of St. James the apostle.
49 AD: COUNCIL OF JERUSALEM
62 AD: James, the president of the council, was martyred.
64 AD: Nero’s Persecution (St. Peter & St. Paul were martyred).
70 AD: the Temple of Jerusalem destroyed by the Romans.
The Early Church was persecuted in Jerusalem. Those who had been scattered went as far as Phoenicia, Cyprus, and Antioch, preaching the word and proclaiming the Lord Jesus. The hand of the Lord was with
them and a great number who believed turned to the Lord. It was in Antioch that the disciples were first called Christians. The heroes of this period were the Apostles and the Prophets.
95 AD: Domitian’s Persecution.
110 AD: St Ignatius of Antioch was martyred.
156 AD: St Polycarp was martyred.
165 AD: St Justin was martyred.
177 AD: Martyrs of Lyons.
180 AD: Martyrs of Scilli.
192-211 AD: Septimius Severus’ Persecution.
202 AD: St Irenaeus 1st theologian died.
215 AD: Clement of Alexandria died.
220 AD: Tertullian died.
237 AD: First church built in Syria.
249 AD: Decius’ Persecution.
250 AD: St Anthony the Great (the Monk) was born.(250-356 AD).
253 AD: Origen died.
253-260 AD: Valerian’s Persecution.
261 AD: The Persians burnt down Antioch.
283-305 AD: Diocletian’s Persecution (a lot of martyrs).
290 AD: St Pachomius of Egypt (the monk) was born. (290-346 AD).
313 AD: Edict of Milan.
324 AD: Constantine, the Emperor, wins over to the Christian Church.
325 AD: COUNCIL OF NICAEA.
The heroes of this period were the Martyrs. There were at least 5 major persecutions (Domitian’s persecution, Septimus Severus’, Decius’, Valerian’s, and Diocletian’s persecutions). Because of the many
heresies that arose in that period of time, especially Gnosticism, Marcionism, Montanism, Ebionism, Docetism, Adoptionism, Nazarianism, Donatism, and Arianism, the Holy Church organized herself appointing bishops to maintain the unity of belief and a moral life and presbyters to visit the sick, take care of the widows, orphans, and the poor, and to serve as judges.
St. Maron & his Disciples (350-452 AD):
The most important events that happened in this period of time were the rise of monastic life (in Egypt & Antioch), the example of St. Maron, the end of Paganism in the Roman Empire, and the evangelization of the Phoenicians in Lebanon.
350 AD: St. John Chrysostom (350-407 AD) & St. Maron (350-410 AD) were born.
373 AD: St. Efrem died.
381 AD: COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE.
395 AD: The end of Paganism by Theodosius.
407 AD: St. John Chrysostom died.
410 AD: St. Maron died.
410 AD: Visigoths under king Alaric captured Rome.
410-420 AD: The Phoenicians of Jebbet Bsharre and Jebbet Mnaytrah converted to Christianity through Abraham the hermit, the disciple of St Maron.
430 AD: St. Augustine died.
431 AD: COUNCIL OF EPHESUS.
432 AD: St. Patrick arrived in Ireland.
451 AD: COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON.
452 AD: The building of Bet Moroon.
The heroes of this period were the monks and hermits who had to deny themselves, exercising the virtues of humility and chastity, serving their neighbors, giving testimony to the world.
Persecution for the sake of Faith (452-938 AD):
The most important events that happened in this period were the building and destruction of Bet Moroon, the persecution of the Maronites and their refuge in Lebanon, the end of the Roman Empire in the West, the conversion of the Germanic tribes in Europe, and the Arab invasion (including Antioch).
452 AD: The building of Bet Moroon.
476 AD: The Western Roman Empire ended. Powerful earthquakes in Rome.
496 AD: The King of the Franks Clovis and his people became Christians .
517 AD: 350 Maronite monks were killed by the Monophysites. The Maronites sent a letter to Pope Hormizdes.
517-540 AD: Many Maronites took refuge in the mountains of Lebanon.
540 AD: The Persians looted Antioch.
542 AD: St. Benedict died.
553 AD: COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE II
555 AD: Strong earthquakes destroyed Beirut and Antioch.
557 AD: Strong earthquakes in Constantinople.
564 AD: The Persians invaded Syria & Palestine.
590 AD: The Pope was elected.
597 AD: Conversion of England.
609 AD: The seat of Antioch is vacant.
614 AD: The Persians occupied Antioch.
624 AD: The Persians stole the Holy Cross.
628 AD: The Holy Cross was found (September 14)
632 AD: Arabia conquered by Islam.
636 AD: The Arabs invaded Syria and Palestine.
638-746 AD: Ummayad Dynasty (Damascus)
638 AD: The Arabs took control of Antioch.
677 AD: The Mardaites entered Lebanon and mixed with the Aramaic (Phoenicians)
681 AD: COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE III
685 AD: The Maronites have their first Patriarch St. Youhanna Moroon (John Maron)
694 AD: The byzantine Emperor destroyed Bet Moroon killing 500 Maronite monks.
697 AD: The Arabs conquered North Africa.
711 AD: Muslims conquered part of Spain.
712 AD: The Muslims converted the Church of St. John the Baptist-Damascus to a mosque.
739 AD: Yanouh (a village in Lebanon) became the Patriarchate seat.
746 AD: The end of the Ummayad Dynasty.
750-1258 AD: Abbaside Dynasty (Baghdad)
752 AD: Pope Stephen II crowns Pepin king of France.
756 AD: The birth of the Papal State.
786 AD: The Arabs sailed up the Tiber and sacked St. Peter’s.
787 AD: COUNCIL OF NICEA II
800 AD: Pope Leo crowns Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans.
846 AD: The Muslims sowed terror in Rome.
852 AD: The building of Rome & Vatican’s walls to protect the city from Muslims.
869 AD: The Conversion of the Slavic people by Cyril & Methodius.
910-1009 AD: The Christians were persecuted in Syria and Palestine.
910 AD: The Fatimides took control over Syria and Palestine.
924 AD: The Church of the Virgin Mary in Damascus was burnt down.
924 AD: Temporal disappearance of Roman Empire.
935 AD: The Turks took control over Syria and Palestine.
936 AD: The Church of the Sepulcre was burnt down in Jerusalem.
938 AD: Bet Moroon and many Maronite monasteries were completely destroyed. The Maronite Patriach Youhanna the Second left Syria to the mountains of Lebanon.
The Mountains of Lebanon (938-1268 AD):
The most important events that happened in this period were the schism between East & West, the persecution of Christians by the Arabs, the Crusades, and the Maronites’ relationship with the Pope & France.
938-969 AD: Many Maronites left Syria and took refuge in the mountains of Lebanon.
967 AD: Baptism of Duke of Poland.
969 AD: The Byzantines took control over Antioch.
989 AD: Baptism of Vladimir the prince of Kiev.
1009 AD: Thousands of churches were destroyed in Egypt, Syria and Palestine, and the Christians were forbidden to visit the Holy Land.
1048 AD: The Druze religion entered the mountains of Lebanon.
1054 AD: The Schism between the Eastern Church and the Latin Church.
1085 AD: The Turks took control over Antioch.
1098 AD: Crusades in Antioch
1099 AD: Crusades in Lebanon-Jerusalem.
1100 AD: The first Maronite contact with Rome.
1104 AD: The crusades took control over Byblos.
1109 AD: The crusades took control over Tripoli.
1131 AD: The Maronite spiritual leaders met the Papal mandate. They pledged to accept all the teachings of the Holy Father and to obey him.
1137 AD: Troubles between the Crusades and the Maronites.
1139 AD: The First meeting between the Maronites and the Mandate of the Holy See.
1144 AD: Second Crusade by Conrad III German Emperor.
1145 – 1182 AD: The accident of Bezwash: Dogmatic schism between the Maronites of Bsharre and Rome.
1180 AD: The Maronites in obedience to Rome.
1182 AD: No more divisions between the Maronites of Bsharre and Rome.
1187 AD: Third Crusade by Barbarossa, King Richard.
1200 AD: The crusades captured Constantinople.
1203 AD: The Second meeting between the Maronites and the Mandate of the Holy See. The Union with Rome was confirmed.
1215 AD: The FOURTH LATERAN COUNCIL. The Maronite Patriarch participated in the Council.
1226 AD: St. Francis of Assisi died.
1231 AD: St. Antonio of Padua died.
1250 AD: St. Louis king of France visited Lebanon.
1252 AD: St. Claire died.
1258 AD: The end of the Abbaside Dynasty.
Persecution for the sake of Freedom (1268-1516 AD):
The most important events that happened in this period of time were the Mamlooks’ persecution, the black death, the fall of Constantinople, and the discovery of America.
1268 AD: The Mamlooks State began. The Mamlooks launched their first offensive against the Maronites of Bsharre.
1274 AD: COUNCIL OF LEON
1274 AD: St. Thomas Aquinas died.
1281 AD: The Mamlooks sowed destruction in the Maronite villages. They killed the Patriarch.
1282 AD: A Maronite schism between two Patriarchs: Ermea & Luka
1283 AD: The Second Mamlook offensive against the Maronites.
1291 AD: The first Mamlook offensive against Kesrwan.
1297 AD: City of Acre in Palestine falls. This was the last land holding of the crusaders.
1300 AD: The second Mamlook offensive against Kesrwan.
1305 AD: The Mamlooks destroyed Kesrwan, killing 10,000 people.
1308 AD: The Pope moved to Avignon.
1347 – 1351 AD: The Plague killed 25 million people in Europe. It also killed one third of Muslims in Syria, Palestine, Egypt,…
1371 AD: The Ottomans conquered Greece & the Balkans.
1378 AD: Double election.
1380 AD: Catherine of Siena died.
1400 AD: The Plague killed 35 million Chinese.
1431 AD: St. Joan of Arc was martyred.
1439 AD: COUNCIL OF FLORANCE.
1440 AD: The Mamlooks sowed destruction in Miefook. The Maronite Patriarch moved his seat to the Valley of Qannoubeen.
1449 AD: Resignation of last Anti-Pope.
1453 AD: Constantinople falls to the Turks.
1457 AD: St. Rita died.
1475 AD: The first 2 Maronite monks were sent to Rome to study.
1478 AD: Inquisition.
1488 AD: The Maronites of Bsharre drove the Jacobites out of Jebbet Bsharre using force.
1491 AD: Baptism of the king of Congo.
1495 AD: The discovery of America.
1516 AD: The end of the Mamlook State.
The Maronite Prosperity (1516-1842 AD):
The most important events that happened in this period were the schism in the West (Catholic Church & Protestants), the French protection of the Maronites, the Lebanese territories under one Emirate,
the opening of schools & religious orders in Lebanon, and the Lebanese Synod.
1516 AD: The Ottoman rule.
1517 AD: Debate of Martin Luther (95 theses).
1521 AD: The formal excommunication of Martin Luther.
1524 – 1568 AD: The Maronites expanded in Lebanon and built Kesrwan.
1541 AD: The Church of Geneva by Calvin.
1544 AD: The death of Kakhr Ed-Din I
1546 – 1564 AD: COUNCIL OF TRENT
1550 AD: The Maronites were granted freedom of worship by the Ottomans through the French Ambassador.
1555 AD: The peace of Augsburg that gave rights to protestants.
1556 AD: 1000 Jesuits.
1559 AD: Ignatius of Loyola died.
1570 AD: The Ottomans invaded Cyprus killing a great number of Maronites.
1571 AD: The Ottomans conquered Armenia & Cyprus. The Battle of Lepanto.
1579 AD: 150,000 Christians in Japan.
1582 AD: St. Theresa of Avila died.
1584 AD: The Ottomans killed 60,000 Druze.
1584 AD: Pope Gregorius XIII founded the Maronite College in Rome.
1590 AD: The Cupola of St. Peter was built.
1600 AD: 300,000 Christians in Japan.
1600 AD: 8,000 Jesuits. 20,000 Cappucins.
1605 AD: St. John of the Cross died.
1614 AD: Christianity was banned in Japan.
1623 AD: The Lebanese territories are united under one Emirate with Fakhr Ed-Din II.
1626 AD: The Cappucins arrived in Lebanon.
1633 AD: Fakhr Ed-Din II prepared the Lebanese Constitution.
1635 AD: The Ottomans killed Fakhr Ed-Din II.
1635 AD: The Carmelites arrived in Lebanon.
1648 AD: The end of religious wars in Europe.
1656 AD: The Jesuits arrived in Lebanon.
1660 AD: St. Vincent De Paul died.
1683 AD: The Turks were defeated in Vienna. The month of May was consecrated to Mary.
1695 AD: On November 10, 1695, three Alepine young men: Gebrayel Hawwa, Abdallah Karaaly & Youssef El-Bitin founded the Maronite Alepine Order.
1700 AD: 20,000 Jesuits.
1704 AD: Patriarch Stephen Dwaihy died.
1706 AD: first Masonic temple in France.
1710 AD: The Chehabs (who were Druze) became Maronites.
1717 AD: first Masonic temple in London.
1719 AD: St. Jean-Baptiste De La Salle died.
1732 AD: The Druze Emir Melhem Abi Haidar became Maronite.
1733 AD: The School of Aintoura.
1734 AD: The School of Zghorta.
1734-1735 AD: The Lebanese Synod.
1735 AD: The number of Maronites in Lebanon 250,000
1742 AD: Rites Controversy (Evangelization was blocked in China.)
1744 AD: Evangelization was blocked in India.
1754 AD: The Emir Youssef was proclaimed a Christian Emir over the Mountains of Lebanon.
1770 AD: The Maronite Order was divided into two separate Orders: The Maronite Alepine Order & the Maronite Baladite (National) Order.
1771 AD: The Maronites expelled the Hamadites (Shiites) out of Jebbet.
1773 AD: The Jesuit Order was suppressed and banned.
1792 AD: The School of Ain Warqa.
1799 AD: Napoleon Bonaparte entered Palestine.
1818 AD: The School of St. Maron Kfarhay.
1821 AD: The Muslims of Beirut persecuted the Christians. They converted the Church of St. John the Baptist into a mosque.
1830 AD: More schools in Lebanon: School of Mar Abda.
1832 AD: School of Rayfoun.
1840 AD: The Lebanese (Maronites and Druze) rebelled against the Egyptian occupier.
Persecution for the sake of Independence (1842-2004 AD):
The most important events that happened in this period were the persecution of the Maronites in Lebanon (Genocide + Famine), the World Wars & the War on Terror, and the independence of Lebanon & his neighbors’ occupation of Lebanese territories.
1842 AD: Tensions between the Maronites and the Druze incited by the Ottomans.
1845 AD: The Druze attack the Maronite villages killing hundreds of people.
1858 AD: The Virgin Mary appears in Lourdes.
1858 AD: St. Nimatullah Hardini dies.
1859 AD: Cure of Ars dies.
1860 AD: The Massacres of 1860. 10,000 Maronites are martyred. Blessed Masabki brothers are martyred in Damascus.
1861 AD: Thousands of young Maronites emigrate to the Americas especially to Brazil, Mexico, and the USA.
1870 AD: THE FIRST VATICAN COUNCIL
1879 AD: St. Bernadette dies.
1897 AD: St. Teresa of Lisieux dies.
1898 AD: St. Sharbel dies.
1914 – 1918 AD: The First World War.
1914 AD: St. Rafqa dies.
1915 -1918 AD: The Great Famine in the mountains. One third of the Maronites perish. Thousands of families emigrate to the Americas, especially the USA.
(Patriarch Elias Hoayeck offered bread to the hungry in 1916 when the Ottomans blocked the roads to the mountains of Lebanon which resulted in the death of famine of one third of the Lebanese people).
1917 AD: The Virgin Mary appears in Fatima.
1918 AD: The fall of the Ottoman Empire. Lebanon becomes under the French delegate.
1920 AD: The Patriarch Howayek and the Peace Conference of Versailles. The Patriarch requests the independence of Lebanon.
1939-1945 AD: The Second World War.
1943 AD: Lebanon wins its independence.
1948 AD: The State of Israel.
1960 AD: 400,000 Maronites reside in Lebanon. 700,000 outside Lebanon.
1962 AD: THE SECOND VATICAN COUNCIL
1975 – 1990 AD: The War in Lebanon. Lebanon falls under Israeli and Syrian Baathist Occupation.
1977 AD: Sharbel Makhlouf is canonized.
1981 AD: The War of Zahle & Beirut.
1983-1985 AD: Massacres in the mountains.
1989 AD: The War for liberation.
1990 AD: The Maronites become divided. They lose their independence. Tens of thousands of young people and families emigrate especially to Canada, Australia, USA, and Europe. Lebanon becomes under Baathist tutelage.
1991 AD: The First Gulf War. Synod for Lebanon.
1994 AD: The Christians of Lebanon are marginalized.
1994-1996 AD: Fr. Emiliano Tardif visits Lebanon. Many people receive healing graces.
1997 AD: Pope John Paul II visits Lebanon and gives hope to the Maronites.
1998 AD: Nimatullah Hardini is beatified.
2000 AD: Lebanon becomes free of Israeli Occupation. The Maronite Patriarch asks Syria to leave Lebanon: “After Israel’s withdrawal, isn’t it time for the Syrian Army to redeploy here in preparation for its final withdrawal, in accordance with the Taif Accord and UN Security Council Resolution 520?”
2001 AD: The Patriarch’s visit to the USA. 300,000 Maronites welcome him in Lebanon. Rafqa is canonized. The Patriarch visits the Druze for reconciliation. The Pro-Syrian government responds with more oppression.
2001 AD: September 11. The War on Terror.
2003-2004 AD: The Maronite Synod. The Second Gulf War.
2004 AD: Nimatullah Hardini is canonized. The Patriarch’s Fifth Appeal. UN Resolution 1559.
2005 AD: The Cedar Revolution. The largest demonstration in Lebanon’s History.
The Syrian Baathist Regime withdraws from Lebanon under international pressure. Lebanon becomes free of Occupation on April 26, 2005.
2008: Abouna Yacoub, a Maronite priest belonging to the cappuccin Order, was beatified on June 22, 2008
2010: Brother Estephan Nehme, a Maronite monk, was beatified on June 27, 2010.
December 17, 2010: Mohamed Bouazizi set himself on fire which triggered the Arab Spring Revolution.
2011: January 14, 2011: Tunisian President Zein Al-Abidine Ben Ali toppled.
January 25, 2011: The Egyptian Revolution
February 3, 2011: Yemeni Revolution
February 11, 2011: Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak toppled.
February 14, 2011: Bahraini Revolution.
February 15, 2011: Libyan Revolution
March 15, 2011: Bechara Rahi the 77th Maronite Patriarch
March 16, 2011: Syrian Revolution
May 1, 2011: Beatification of Pope John Paul II – Osama Bin Laden killed
June 30, 2011: The International Tribunal for Lebanon issues indictments for 4 Lebanese people in the assassination of Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005
August 21, 2012: Libyan President Moammar Gadhafi toppled
October 20, 2011: Moammar Gadhafi killed
November 23, 2011: Yemeni President Ali Abdallah Saleh resigned
November 24, 2012: Maronite Patriarch Bechara Rahi became Cardinal, the fourth Maronite Cardinal in history after Patriarch Mar Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir, Mar Anthony Boutros Khoraish, and Mar Boulos Meouchi.
February 9, 2013: A historical visit of the Maronite Patriarch Bechara Rahi to Damascus, Syria